It is the science of preventive health (take care of health so that disease does not get a chance to get in) and the living habits that check over indulgence in physical senses, going against conscience and natural resistance to the call of the soul (refusal to enjoy the present moment).
What if when someone is already ill? It deals with internal medicine (kayachikitsa), surgery (Shalyachikitsa), Treating eye, ear, nose and throat (shalakyachikitsa), Pediatrics, gynecology and osterics treatment ( kaumarabhritya) and mental health (bhutavidya).
Body Elements & Constitution (Prakriti)
There are five elements of which the human body is made up of: akasha (ether), Vayu (air), Agni (Fire), Jala (Water) and Prithvi (earth).
Because of the above five elements, all human beings are constituted with a combination of two or three primary ones. Those are called body humours or Doshas: Kapha, Vata and Pitta. Any person is easy to treat with the identification of his/her category.
Vata category is a combination of space and air elements: People are fearful, illogical and insecure. Skin is dry. They have thin hair. They have dark brown or grey eyes. Vata activates the nervous system, hearing and speech and the persons is a great enthusiast with creativity. However, the state of his mind gets imbalanced easily because of which he gets diseases like insomnia, cramps, and constipation.
Pitta category is fire element: These people are achievers, intellectual, fiery, angry, judgemental, with a clear voice and precise expression. They have soft and fine hair. Eyes are blue, grey and hazel. They are good leaders and warm personality when healthy. Because of emphasis on metabolism and anger, they suffer from acidity, ulcers, and rashes and also thinning of hair occurs.
Kapha category is(water and earth element: They have thick lustrous hair. Eyes are blue or brown. People have great endurance capacity with the calm and steady mind. They are capable of forgiveness and intense love. Sometimes they are greedy and possessive. Kapha is the lubricant that keeps the joints working, keeps the body vibrant and balanced with immunity. Too much of it leads to lethargy, congestion, allergies and weight gain.
Nature of ailments
After the Prakriti is decided, one should know the nature of the diseases(Vikriti). It is imbalance obviously, but there are two extremes to every imbalance, either deficiency or excess. Those are heavy-light, slow-sharp, cold-hot, unctuous-dry, smooth-rough, solid-liquid, soft-hard, stable-mobile, subtle-gross, and non-slimmy. When corrected, Prakriti or original constitution is restored.
These 20 characteristics that with regards to ones basic constitution will decide the treatment. These may be caused by wrong foods causing improper digestion, wrong sleeping habits, improper mindset, anxiety etc.
The other type of ailment is clogging or blockage (Ama) for life energy to circulate for vitality. When this is corrected, it produces energy, perfect immunity, physical strength and hence a general sense of bliss which is summarised in Ayurveda in one word called Ojas.
Some Herbs and Minerals
Malabar nut: bronchitis, asthma, boosting immune systems
Bael: Digestive system
Garlic: lipids and cholesterol
Asparagus: Female reproductive system and lactation
Aloe Vera: Hair and skin treatment
Neem: blood purifier and anti-fungal treatment